Render a 3D floating cloud layer of the map.

Note: Underlying layers with transparency can cause rendering issues in rgl.

render_clouds(
  heightmap,
  start_altitude = 1000,
  end_altitude = 2000,
  sun_altitude = 10,
  sun_angle = 315,
  time = 0,
  cloud_cover = 0.5,
  layers = 10,
  offset_x = 0,
  offset_y = 0,
  scale_x = 1,
  scale_y = 1,
  scale_z = 1,
  frequency = 0.005,
  fractal_levels = 16,
  attenuation_coef = 1,
  seed = 1,
  zscale = 1,
  baseshape = "rectangle",
  clear_clouds = FALSE
)

Arguments

heightmap

A two-dimensional matrix, where each entry in the matrix is the elevation at that point. This is used by `render_clouds()` to calculate the regions the clouds should be rendered in.

start_altitude

Default `1000`. The bottom of the cloud layer.

end_altitude

Default `2000`. The top of the cloud layer.

sun_altitude

Default `90`. The angle, in degrees (as measured from the horizon) from which the light originates.

sun_angle

Default `315` (NW). The angle, in degrees, around the matrix from which the light originates. Zero degrees is North, increasing clockwise

time

Default `0`. Advance this to make the clouds evolve and change in shape.

cloud_cover

Default `0.5`. The percentage of cloud cover.

layers

Default `10`. The number of layers to render the cloud layer. The default is `layers/(start_altitude - end_altitude)`.

offset_x

Default `0`. Change this to move the cloud layer sideways.

offset_y

Default `0`. Change this to move the cloud layer backwards and forwards.

scale_x

Default `1`. Scale the fractal pattern in the x direction.

scale_y

Default `1`. Scale the fractal pattern in the y direction.

scale_z

Default `1`. Scale the fractal pattern in the z (vertical) direction. (automatically calculated). Scale the fractal pattern in the z (vertical) direction.

frequency

Default `0.005`. The base frequency of the noise used to calculate the fractal cloud structure.

fractal_levels

Default `16`. The fractal dimension used to calculate the noise. Higher values give more fine structure, but take longer to calculate.

attenuation_coef

Default `1`. Amount of attenuation in the cloud (higher numbers give darker shadows). This value is automatically scaled to account for increasing the number of layers.

seed

Default `1`. Random seed used to generate clouds.

zscale

Default `1`. The ratio between the x and y spacing (which are assumed to be equal) and the z axis. For example, if the elevation levels are in units of 1 meter and the grid values are separated by 10 meters, `zscale` would be 10.

baseshape

Default `rectangle`. Shape of the base. Options are `c("rectangle","circle","hex")`.

clear_clouds

Default `FALSE`. Clears all existing floating layers on the visualization.

Value

Adds a 3D floating cloud layer to the map. No return value.

Examples

# \dontrun{
#Render a cloud layer over Monterey Bay
montereybay  %>%
 sphere_shade()  %>%
 plot_3d(montereybay,background="brown",zscale=50)

#Render some clouds
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50)  
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()

rgl::rgl.clear()


#Change the seed for a different set of clouds and add cloud shadows on the ground
montereybay  %>%
 sphere_shade()  %>%
 add_shadow(cloud_shade(montereybay,zscale=50, seed = 2), 0.0) %>%
 plot_3d(montereybay,background="brown",zscale=50)
render_camera(theta=-65, phi = 25, zoom = 0.45, fov = 80)
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50, seed=2, clear_clouds = T)    
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()

rgl::rgl.clear()

montereybay  %>%
 sphere_shade()  %>%
 plot_3d(montereybay,background="brown",zscale=50)
 
#Lower the frequency for larger, smoother clouds
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50, frequency = 0.001, clear_clouds = T)
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()


#Increase the frequency for more broken clouds
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50, frequency = 0.05, clear_clouds = T)
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()


#Increase the fractal level for fluffier, bumpier clouds
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50, fractal_levels = 32, clear_clouds = T)
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()


#Decrease the fractal level for more smoother, continuous clouds
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50, fractal_levels = 4, clear_clouds = T)
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()


#Increase the cloud cover
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50, cloud_cover=0.8, clear_clouds = T)            
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()


#Decrease the cloud cover
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50, cloud_cover=0.2, clear_clouds = T)            
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()


#Change the altitude range of the clouds
render_clouds(montereybay,zscale=50,start_altitude=2000,end_altitude = 4000, clear_clouds = T)            
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()


#Increase the number of layers 
render_clouds(montereybay, zscale=50,start_altitude=2000,end_altitude = 4000, layers = 20,
             clear_clouds = T)
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot()


#Change the sun angle and altitude, and increase the attenuation for darker clouds
render_clouds(montereybay,zscale=50,sun_angle=45, sun_altitude= 5, attenuation_coef = 5,
             clear_clouds = T)
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_snapshot(clear=TRUE)


#Render the scene with a different baseshape
montereybay  %>%
 sphere_shade()  %>%
 plot_3d(montereybay,background="darkred",zscale=50, baseshape="hex")
render_clouds(montereybay,zscale=50, seed=3, baseshape="hex", clear_clouds = T)  
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
#> Warning: 'length(x) = 2 > 1' in coercion to 'logical(1)'
render_camera(zoom=0.65)
render_snapshot()

rgl::rgl.close()
# }